Research

Overview

Klaus, H., Natural family planning: a review. Obstet Gynecol Surv 1982, 37 (2), 128-50.
PubMed

Manhart, M.D., Duane, M., Linda, A., Sinai, I., Golden-Tevald J. Fertility awareness-based methods of family planning: A review of effectiveness for avoiding pregnancy using SORT, Osteopathic Family Physician, 2013, 5(1), 2-8.
Abstract  Article

Mikolajczyk, R.T., Stanford, J.B., & Rauchfuss, M. Factors influencing the choice to use modern natural family planning, Contraception. 2002, 67, 253-258.
PubMed

Pallone, S.R., Burgus, G.R. Fertility Awareness-based Methods: Another Option for Family Planning, J Am Board Fam Med200922(2):147-57.
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Smoley, B. A.; Robinson, C. M., Natural family planning. Am Fam Physician 2012, 86 (10), 924-8.
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Effectiveness of Natural or Fertility Awareness-Based Methods

Arevalo, M.; Jennings, V.; Nikula, M.; Sinai, I., Efficacy of the new TwoDay Method of family planning. Fertil Steril 2004, 82 (4), 885-92.
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Arevalo, M.; Jennings, V.; Sinai, I., Efficacy of a new method of family planning: the Standard Days Method. Contraception 2002, 65 (5), 333-8.
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Bhargava, H.; Bhatia, J. C.; Ramachandran, L.; Rohatgi, P.; Sinha, A., Field trial of billings ovulation method of natural family planning. Contraception 1996, 53 (2), 69-74.
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Fehring, R. J.; Schneider, M.; Raviele, K.; Barron, M. L., Efficacy of cervical mucus observations plus electronic hormonal fertility monitoring as a method of natural family planning. J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs 2007, 36 (2), 152-60.
PubMed

Fehring, R.J., Schneider, M., Raviele, K., Rodriguez, D., Pruszynski, J. Randomized comparison of two Internet-supported fertility-awareness-based methods of family planning, Contraception 2013, 88(1), 24-30.
PubMed

Fehring, R., Lawrence, D., Philpot, C. Use effectiveness of the Creighton model ovulation method of natural family planning, J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs 1994, 23(4), 303-312.
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Fehring, R.J., Schneider, M., Barron, M.L., Prezsynski, J. Influence of motivation on the efficacy of natural family planning, Am J Mat Child Nursing 2013, 38(6):352-8.
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Frank-Herrmann, P.; Freundl, G.; Gnoth, C.; Godehardt, E.; Kunert, J.; Baur, S.; Sottong, U., Natural family planning with and without barrier method use in the fertile phase: efficacy in relation to sexual behavior: a German prospective long-term study. Adv Contracept 1997, 13 (2-3), 179-89.
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Frank-Herrmann, P.; Heil, J.; Gnoth, C.; Toledo, E.; Baur, S.; Pyper, C.; Jenetzky, E.; Strowitzki, T.; Freundl, G., The effectiveness of a fertility awareness based method to avoid pregnancy in relation to a couple’s sexual behaviour during the fertile time: a prospective longitudinal study. Hum Reprod 2007, 22 (5), 1310-9.
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Gnoth, C.; Godehardt, D.; Godehardt, E.; Frank-Herrmann, P.; Freundl, G., Time to pregnancy: results of the German prospective study and impact on the management of infertility. Hum Reprod 2003, 18 (9), 1959-66.
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Hilgers, T. W.; Daly, K. D.; Prebil, A. M.; Hilgers, S. K., Cumulative pregnancy rates in patients with apparently normal fertility and fertility-focused intercourse. J Reprod Med 1992, 37(10), 864-6.
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Hilgers, T. W.; Stanford, J. B., Creighton Model NaProEducation Technology for avoiding pregnancy. Use effectiveness. J Reprod Med 1998, 43 (6), 495-502.
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Howard, M. P.; Stanford, J. B., Pregnancy probabilities during use of the Creighton Model Fertility Care System. Arch Fam Med 1999, 8 (5), 391-402.
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Lamprecht, V.; Trussell, J., Natural family planning effectiveness: evaluating published reports. Adv Contracept 1997, 13 (2-3), 155-65.
PubMed

Manhart, M.D., Duane, M., Linda, A., Sinai, I., Golden-Tevald, J. Fertility awareness-based methods of family planning: A review of effectiveness for avoiding pregnancy using SORT, Osteopathic Family Physician 2013, 5(1), 2-8.
Abstract     Article

Robinson, J. E.; Wakelin, M.; Ellis, J. E., Increased pregnancy rate with use of the Clearblue Easy Fertility Monitor. Fertil Steril 2007, 87 (2), 329-34.
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Sinai, I.; Cachan, J., A Bridge for postpartum women to Standard Days Method(R): II. Efficacy study. Contraception 2012, 86 (1), 16-21.
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Sinai, I.; Jennings, V.; Arévalo, M., The importance of screening and monitoring: the Standard Days Method and cycle regularity. Contraception 2004, 69 (3), 201-6. 
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Stanford, J. B.; Parnell, T. A.; Boyle, P. C., Outcomes from treatment of infertility with natural procreative technology in an Irish general practice. J Am Board Fam Med 2008, 21 (5), 375-84.
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Tham, E.; Schliep, K.; Stanford, J., Natural procreative technology for infertility and recurrent miscarriage: outcomes in a Canadian family practice. Can Fam Physician 2012, 58 (5), e267-74.
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Trussell, J.; Grummer-Strawn, L., Contraceptive failure of the ovulation method of periodic abstinence. Fam Plann Perspect 1990, 22 (2), 65-75.
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Trussell, J.; Grummer-Strawn, L., Further analysis of contraceptive failure of the ovulation method. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1991, 165 (6 Pt 2), 2054-9.
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Warniment, C. B.; Hansen, K., Is natural family planning a highly effective method of birth control? Yes: natural family planning is highly effective and fulfilling. Am Fam Physician2012, 86 (10), 1-2.
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[World Health Organization] A prospective multicentre trial of the ovulation method of natural family planning. II. The effectiveness phase. Fertil Steril 1981, 36 (5), 591-8.
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Ovulation and the Menstrual Cycle

American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Adolescence, American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists Committee on Adolescent Health Care, Diaz, A., Laufer, M.R., Breech, L.L. Clinical report: Menstruation in girls and adolescents: Using the menstrual cycle as a vital sign. Pediatrics, 2006, 118(5), 2245-2250.
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Cohen, M. R.; Stein, I. F., Sr.; Kaye, B. M., Spinnbarkeit: a characteristic of cervical mucus; significance at ovulation time. Fertil Steril 1952, 3 (3), 201-9.
PubMed

Vigil, P., Ceric, F., Cortes, M.E., Klaus, H. Usefulness of monitoring fertility from menarche. J Ped and Adol Gynecology 2006, 19, 172-179.
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Wilcox, A. J.; Weinberg, C. R.; Baird, D. D., Post-ovulatory ageing of the human oocyte and embryo failure. Hum Reprod 1998, 13 (2), 394-7.
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Wilcox, A. J.; Weinberg, C. R.; Baird, D. D., Timing of sexual intercourse in relation to ovulation. Effects on the probability of conception, survival of the pregnancy, and sex of the baby.N Engl J Med 1995, 333 (23), 1517-21.
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Scientific Issues in Family Planning

Cibula, D.; Gompel, A.; Mueck, A. O.; La Vecchia, C.; Hannaford, P. C.; Skouby, S. O.; Zikan, M.; Dusek, L., Hormonal contraception and risk of cancer. Hum Reprod Update 2010, 16 (6), 631-50.

Gnoth, C.; Frank-Herrmann, P.; Schmoll, A.; Godehardt, E.; Freundl, G., Cycle characteristics after discontinuation of oral contraceptives. Gynecol Endocrinol 2002, 16 (4), 307-17.
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Higgins, J. E.; Wilkens, L. R., Statistical comparison of Pearl rates. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1985, 151 (5), 656-9.
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Kahlenborn, C.; Stanford, J. B.; Larimore, W. L., Postfertilization effect of hormonal emergency contraception. Ann Pharmacother 2002, 36 (3), 465-70.
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Heffron, R.; Donnell, D.; Rees, H.; Celum, C.; Mugo, N.; Were, E.; de Bruyn, G.; Nakku-Joloba, E.; Ngure, K.; Kiarie, J.; Coombs, R. W.; Baeten, J. M., Use of hormonal contraceptives and risk of HIV-1 transmission: a prospective cohort study. Lancet Infect Dis 2012, 12 (1), 19-26.
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Morrison, C. S.; Nanda, K., Hormonal contraception and HIV: an unanswered question. Lancet Infect Dis 2012, 12 (1), 2-3.
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Morrison, C. S.; Bright, P.; Wong, E. L.; Kwok, C.; Yacobson, I.; Gaydos, C. A.; Tucker, H. T.; Blumenthal, P. D., Hormonal contraceptive use, cervical ectopy, and the acquisition of cervical infections. Sex Transm Dis 2004, 31 (9), 561-7.
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Mosher, W. D.; Martinez, G. M.; Chandra, A.; Abma, J. C.; Willson, S. J., Use of contraception and use of family planning services in the United States: 1982-2002. Adv Data 2004, (350), 1-36.
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Stanford, J. B.; Larimore, W., Informed consent for postfertilization effects of hormonal and surgical forms of birth control for women. Arch Fam Med 2000, 9 (8), 690-1.

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Wilcox A. J., Baird D. B., Weinberg C. R., Time of implantation of the conceptus and loss of pregnancy. N Engl J Med 1999, 340, 1796-9.
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Breastfeeding and NFP/FABMs

Kennedy, K. I.; Kotelchuck, M., Policy considerations for the introduction and promotion of the lactational amenorrhea method: advantages and disadvantages of LAM. J Hum Lact 1998, 14 (3), 191-203.
PubMed

Labbok, M. H.; Hight-Laukaran, V.; Peterson, A. E.; Fletcher, V.; von Hertzen, H.; Van Look, P. F., Multicenter study of the Lactational Amenorrhea Method (LAM): I. Efficacy, duration, and implications for clinical application. Contraception 1997, 55 (6), 327-36.
PubMed

Peterson, A. E.; Perez-Escamilla, R.; Labbok, M. H.; Hight, V.; von Hertzen, H.; Van Look, P., Multicenter study of the lactational amenorrhea method (LAM) III: effectiveness, duration, and satisfaction with reduced client-provider contact. Contraception 2000, 62 (5), 221-30.
PubMed

Psycho/Social Aspects of NFP/FABMs

France, M., France, J., Townend. K. Natural family planning in New Zealand: a study of continuation rates and characteristics of users. Adv Contracept. 1997, 13, 191-198.
PubMed

Grimes, D. A.; Gallo, M. F.; Grigorieva, V.; Nanda, K.; Schulz, K. F., Fertility awareness-based methods for contraception: systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Contraception 2005, 72 (2), 85-90.
PubMed

Klann, N.; Hahlweg, K.; Hank, G., Psychological aspects of NFP practice. Int J Fertil 1988, 33 Suppl, 65-9.
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Vande Vusse, L.; Hanson, L.; Fehring, R. J.; Newman, A.; Fox, J., Couples’ views of the effects of natural family planning on marital dynamics. J Nurs Scholarsh 2003, 35 (2), 171-6.
PubMed

FABMs Training Programs and Education

Beeman, P. Natural Family Planning in Education and Practice: A Narrative Review of the Literature, The Linacre Quarterly 2010, 77(4), 399–414.
Abstract

Fehring, R. J.; Schneider, M.; Raviele, K., Pilot evaluation of an internet-based natural family planning education and service program. J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs 2011, 40 (3), 281-91.
PubMed

Lundsberg, L. S.; Pal, L.; Gariepy, A. M.; Xu, X.; Chu, M. C.; Illuzzi, J. L., Knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding conception and fertility: a population-based survey among reproductive-age United States women. Fertil Steril 2014, 101 (3), 767-74.
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Stanford, J. B.; Lemaire, J. C.; Thurman, P. B., Women’s interest in natural family planning. J Fam Pract 1998, 46 (1), 65-71.
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Stanford JB, Thurman PB, Lemaire JC.. Physicians’ knowledge and practices regarding natural family planning., LWW:Obstet Gynecol. 1999 Nov;94(5 Pt 1):672-8.
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Stanford, J. B.; Lemaire, J. C.; Fox, A., Interest in natural family planning among female family practice patients. Fam Pract Res J 1994, 14 (3), 237-49.
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Steinauer J., LaRochelle, F., Rowh, M., Backus, L., Sandahl, Y., Foster, A. First impressions: what are preclinical medical students in the US and Canada learning about sexual and reproductive health? Contraception 2009, 80(1), 74-80.
PubMed

Miscellaneous

Ebell, M. H.; Siwek, J.; Weiss, B. D.; Woolf, S. H.; Susman, J.; Ewigman, B.; Bowman, M., Strength of recommendation taxonomy (SORT): a patient-centered approach to grading evidence in the medical literature. J Am Board Fam Pract 2004, 17 (1), 59-67.
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